Jana-Gana-Mana-Adhinayaka, Jaya He
Tava Subha Name Jage
Tava Subha Ashisha Mage
Gahe Tava Jaya Gatha.
Jana-Gana-Mangala Dayaka, Jaya He
Jaya He, Jaya He, Jaya He,
Jaya Jaya Jaya, Jaya He
The poem ‘Jana-Gana -Mana’ is an immortal creation of the poet Rabindranath Tagore. The poem seems to focus on most of the great factors or aspects of India and arouse a patriotic feeling in the readers mind. This poem cum song was written by Rabindranath Tagore in honour of King George V and the Queen of England when they visited India in 1911. To honour their visit, Pandit Motilal Nehru had five stanzas included that are in praise of the King and Queen. It was not taken from any book but was written as an independent poem. Rabindranath Tagore wrote it in praise of India and first sung it in Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress on 27 December 1911.
Background of the poem
“Jana Gana Mana” is the national anthem of India. Written in highly Sanskritised (Tatsama) Bengali, the first of five stanzas is a Brahmo hymn composed and scored by Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore. The poem seems to focus on the regional factors or aspects of India. The provinces that were under British rule, i.e. Punjab, Sindh, Gujarat, Maratha, Dravid (South India), Orissa and Bengal, were mentioned. None of the princely states – Kashmir, Rajasthan, Hyderabad, Mysore or Kerala – or the states in North-East India, which are integral parts of India now, were mentioned. Neither the Indian Ocean nor the Arabian Sea was included, since they were directly under Portuguese rule at that time. But opponents of this proposition claim that Tagore mentioned only the borders states of India to include complete India. Whether the princely states would form a part of a liberated Indian republic was a matter of debate even till Indian Independence. ‘Dravida’ includes the people from the south (though Dravida specifically means Tamil and even then, the same consideration is not given for the south since there are many distinct people whereas in the north each of the distinct people are named) and ‘Jolodhi’ (Stanza 1) is Sanskrit for “seas and oceans”. Even North-East which was under British rule or holy rivers apart from Ganges and Yamuna are not mentioned to keep the song in its rhythm.
The song has been written almost entirely using nouns that also can function as verbs. Most of the nouns of the song are in used in all major languages in India. Therefore, the original song is quite clearly understandable, and in fact, remains almost unchanged in several widely different aspects. The whole poem is constructed in a beautiful rhythmic manner and evokes a sense of nationalism among the readers. The poem seems to focus on the regional factors or aspects of India. This poem fully satisfies the throne of national anthem for our country.
"Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka, jaya he Bharata-bhagya-vidhata”
The poet here says that India was a colony of the British and George was the Governor general at that time. He was not only the ruler of the people as well as governed the minds of the people of Bharat. The poet here means that if yes then accept this praise. If no then this praise is intended for the real ruler of the minds of all the people of Bharat. He intends to say that they are the dispenser of India’s destiny.
Now here Tagore states that His(Gods) name rouses the hearts of Punjab, Sindhu, Gujarat and Maratha. George’s name did not resound in Punjab, Sindhu, Gujarat and Maratha ,if not then whose names resounded in these provinces in those times ? The poet says that these are the ancestors’ names or are they God’s incarnations names like Ram, Aniruddha, Narayana, etc. or God’s devotees’ names like Gaurang, Arjun etc. These are the names that "rouse the hearts of Punjab, Sind, Gujarat, Maratha, Dravida-Utkala-Banga". Not to say that there are not any mundane names in India that do not have a direct reference to God but the names mentioned above are by far the most popular names in India.
"Vindhya-Himachala-Yamuna-Ganga Uchchala-Jaladhi-taranga Tava shubha
name jage Tava shubha asisa mage’’
The poet says that it your auspicious names echoes in the hills of the Vindhyas and Himalayas, mingles in the music of Jamuna and Ganges and is chanted by the waves of the Indian Sea.
"Gahe tava jaya gatha’’
In this line the poet says that they pray for your blessing and sing your praise unknowingly or knowingly they chant your names and are blessed.)
"Jana-gana-mangala-dayaka jaya he Bharata-bhagya-vidhata"
The poet here intends that the saving of all people waits in thy hand ,thou dispenser of India’s destiny. So this is a direct reference to God not George. The saving of all people waits in your hand God who can dispense with India’s destiny.
"Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he,Jaya jaya jaya, jaya he!’’
The poet here meant victory, victory, victory from the supreme power that is from the British.
This poem has been written long before independence and brings out a clear resemblance of the British rule in India. The poem seems to focus on most of the great factors or aspects of India and arouse a patriotic feeling in the readers mind. This poem cum song was written by Rabindranath Tagore in honour of King George V and the Queen of England when they visited India in 1911. To honour their visit, Pandit Motilal Nehru had five stanzas included that are in praise of the King and Queen. It also evokes a strong patriotic feeling in the readers mind. Through this poem the poet evokes a sense of nationalism among the readers and pleas to awaken the masses for revolution against British. Imperialism.
“Jana Gana Mana” is the national anthem of India and Tagore reaches the essence of Bharat or India by unifying element of all the cultures of India, namely Lord Krishna. Tagore refers to Lord Krishna as “The Eternal Charioteer” who is guiding the people through the ages. Originally written in Bengali, it is the first of five stanzas of a poem written and later set to notations by Rabindranath Tagore. It was first sung in the Calcutta Session of the Indian National Congress on December 27, 1911. It was officially adopted by the Constituent Assembly as the Indian national anthem on January 24, 1950. Through this poem the poet evokes a sense of nationalism among the readers and pleas to awaken the masses for revolution against British Imperialism.